Changing Views

Starting a course in technology was intimidating for me to say the least.  I lacked the confidence that allows other to be more outgoing with this platform and I assumed that because I was somewhat disconnected from the technology world, that there was not room for me to grow with it.  For me, technology has grown so rapidly and my use for it was slightly stifled as the next new device or software update rolled out.  If there is something to be said about my ignorance with my own relationship towards technology, it would be that my ignorance was blissful.  And as I step into a newer role, one that forces a stronger accountability for my own acquisition of technology skills, I realize that technology is not a fancy perk or extra, it is real and important.  In order to remain effective, I must forge through my uncomfortableness with education in order to assist my own students with responsible utilization.  “In an unimaginable complex future, the unenhanced person…will no longer be able to keep up with an enhanced human…. In the future, our young people won’t have the necessary competitive wisdom without it” (p. 202).  My initial nerves for this class could be felt—I’m sure—by all of the members of my cohort.  In an initial excerpt from our first assignment in class, I explain my trepidation towards technology:

I must be honest, I am not the most comfortable with technology.  It is something that somewhat intimidates me, but I do find that once I get the hang of specific types of hard and software, it does become a lot of fun.  People fear the unknowing and I have to be honest, to say the least, there is a lot I do not know about technology!  I am sure that this course will do a great job of helping me develop a stronger foundation towards utilizing and supporting technological changes for the betterment of education (Ellis, 2017).

To say the least, my learning has evolved.  I think a stronger statement that explains the process of my acceptance and utilization of technology as more along the lines of a transformative experience.  An experience, where the assignments—groupwork, reflective posts, readings, videos, and feedback—have offered me an opportunity to truly reflect upon my own beliefs, exposure to other perspectives, and realities through research have provoked my desire to learn and use technology more.

There were a great many concepts or topics that were discussed in this coursework, but I think there are a few that really stood out to me as truly significant.  First, is the focus of truly understanding—first and foremost—what the digital native sees as truly engaging learning.  In order to do this, there must be a strong understanding of the thought processes of the digital native, but also how my “accent” (Prensky, 2012, p. 68), as a digital immigrant, truly influences the learning experiences of the digital native.  Prensky (2012) explains, that “our students have changed radically” (p. 67) and learning to play to their strengths, facilitate learning that is engaging to them, and shifting our mindsets from the way it used to be, to the reality of what it really is, is not only important, but critical for optimal learning to occur.

What this means for me, is something that I quite honestly had not considered in the past.  And that is, students of today are different than the students from two decades ago.  I know we all have thought it, we all have jokingly inferred it, but there is real research that suggests that cognitive abilities of students—the manner in which they approach learning, what they retain, the manner in which they multi-task, the ability to grab information from rapidly overstimulated material—is drastically different of those from twenty years ago.  Understanding this, looking at how to properly meet the needs of your students, and inevitably catering the learning experience to this is strongly beneficial to maintain optimal peak performance.

Another very strong topic of the course that really has helped me grow as a student and teacher, deals with the utilization of technology.  Throughout this technology course, we have been required to participate in activities that utilize current technology.  The benefits from this use, is the ability to become comfortable with the technology and open to how truly beneficial it can be for the classroom.  Although these opportunities did worry me, I remained open and largely optimistic that the experiences would lead me to new thought and inevitably new knowledge.  Bowen (2015) explains that “one favorable omen is the openness of many faculty to new ways of thinking—including the desirability of “flipping the classroom” ….and we have to be willing and open towards “changing the faculty role to spend less time lecturing and more time coaching students” (p. 61).

By far, this was the most engaging and helpful portion of the class for me.  Allowing me the opportunity to delve into the technology and gaining an understanding of how to use it, not only helps me with my own teachers and students, but it gives me the opportunity to know more about it, which inevitably reduces the amount of fear and anxiety I feel towards it and the unknowing.  Failing with the technology, getting the much-needed support from peers and the professor helped give me the confidence to fail and through those failures I found a great deal of success.  Not only did I learn to utilize many different types of software, but I found ways to expand upon my own teaching practices that will help create engagement within the classroom.

Finally, the last influential focus within this class was the understanding of e-learning communities and how traditionally-based universities stand a very strong chance of losing much needed revenue in order to keep their programs alive at the institution.  In order to achieve this, we learn that a strong hybrid system—something that utilizes both traditional and elearning formats for the coursework.  “Blending the online and in-class environments lets both students and instructors make more focused use of their time, potentially producing a learning experience of both lower cost and higher quality” (Christensen & Eyring, 2011, p. 279).  Schools must not only shift gears towards providing a strong mixture of the two programs, but they must be better attuned to meeting the needs of the individual student.  This is a strong push for me to find opportunities to shift the learning experiences towards more self-directed challenges that address the specific needs of the individual rather than “blanket” lecturing to a group of 500 students.              Ultimately, these concepts learned within this class have allowed me the opportunity to truly find an appreciation for technology and a greater understanding towards the students that walk into the school on a daily basis.  I must be more accepting of the many types of technology that they use, but I must also develop a wisdom that allows the utilization of the technology to be both effective and productive.


Bowen, W. G. (2015). Higher Education in the Digital Age. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781400866137/

Christensen, C. M., Eyring, H. J. (2011-07-11). The Innovative University: Changing the DNA of Higher Education from the Inside Out, 1st Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118956465/

Prensky, M. R. (01/2012). From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning, 1st Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781452284194/



Prensky (2012) explains the complexity behind the question “what is learning” (p. 36) and despite our ability to truly define it, given the many variations of the definition from different disciplines, “the people from educational research, educational methods, pedagogy, instructional design, learning science, cognition and instruction, cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, educational psychology, human factors, training, child development, linguistics, neuro-linguistics, biology, computer science, neuroscience, and cognitive neurology” we lack a definitive answer” (Prensky, 2012, p. 36).  The issue with this lack of coherence or consistency, we also see varying pedagogical styles, perspectives, and ultimately beliefs that create varying methods and directions in which to take the student.  We also see a lack in role identification on behalf of the teacher and the student.  Is it any wonder why the field of education has such mixed approaches and methods?

Learning happens through the mind of the individual learner.  The individual context of the learner, their history, and their experiences creates an opinion or value towards information and drastically effects the manner in which they approach, receive, transmit, convey, organize, and regurgitate the information.  Prensky (2012) explains that, “From a cognitive point of view, any complex human activity almost always involves an intricate interplay among different kinds of knowledge, perceptual discriminations, motor and cognitive skills, strategies and performance demands or contexts. Correspondingly, many kinds of learning are involved, and they are not all achieved in the same way” (p. 42).

It would serve the student well to realize that, despite the title of Digital Native, students learn best through a mixed methods approach.  That is, the more variance in methods used will create a stronger opportunity to educate more learners.  As educators develop an identity of themselves, they are eventually able to also identify manners is which they learn best.  It is reasonable to assume, that given the transition into a higher technically driven society, that utilization of technology to optimize student learning would be considered wise.  Prensky (2012) asks why we should be so concerned with introducing technology into our education system and the answer is quite simple.  “In an unimaginable complex future, the unenhanced person…will no longer be able to keep up with an enhanced human….In the future, our young people won’t have the necessary competitive wisdom without it” (p. 202).

The ability to use technology and the wisdom behind the reason or method in which to use the technology are two entirely different things.  Inevitably, the role of creating wisdom in the utilization of technology will fall to the relationship between the student and the teacher.  Heitner (2014) explains the “mentoring” role as a critical method of determining wisdom in the utilization of technology.  To know limits, manners in approach, and even the experience of others can be enlightening and impactful for the student.  Many Digital Immigrants face a stronger battle in identifying and accepting the role that technology plays in the life of a student, but as these immigrants become more accepting of the use of technology to transcend informational barriers, it will allot them the opportunity to develop more in depth relationships with the students.  This will inevitably allow technology to assess and evaluate student levels of knowledge, while utilizing the teacher in manners in which to address areas of strength and weakness within the student.

The role of the teacher is something that will need to change in order for students to utilize the resources that will strengthen their competitiveness in the global market.  As the role of teacher moves back to its Socratic start, we will inevitably see a stronger responsibility of learning placed on the student and the role of the teacher will be seen as a mentor guiding the more introspective thought processes that create more meaningful—deeply rooted learning.


Heitner, D. (2014). The challenges of raising a digital native [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eRQdAOrqvGg

Prensky, M. (2012). From digital natives to digital wisdom: Hopeful essays for 21st century learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Pedagogy for Digital Natives


Innovative Practices that Work!

Technology has driven change in many ways.  It can be seen within the dynamic of the household, the manner in which people participate in the community, and it also has had a very profound impact on the manner in which we educate and train the future leaders of our society.  These changes, shifts in roles, manners of relation have greatly increased the responsibility of the university to provide a more “with-it” and “student-centered” approach to education and has greatly reinforced the drastic need for pedagogical change.  “Colleges and universities are confronting new types of students—younger and more technology-driven, as well as older and more career-driven. They are confronting unprecedented competition, aggressive accountability demands and a view of operating in a global context” (Fullan & Scott, 2010, p. 1).  Universities must find innovative ways to further meet the needs of the student while setting themselves apart from the old and the common.

Innovation comes from the ability to consciously consider multiple perspectives while looking for answers and solutions to relatively new and foreign ideas.  “Without the ability to see value in what others say, and without the capacity to think about issues within a futures context, there will be few truly innovative approaches that emerge to ensure that people, organizations, and communities remain vital and sustainable” (Marx, 2006, p. 151).

Portland State University, took quite seriously the changes in technology and the need for shifts in pedagogical styles within their university.  As a preemptive effort, Portland U began addressing technology needs from the beginning—understanding that the “student” has a much different role today, then he/she did twenty years ago.

According to Newbaker (2012) today’s college student is quite different than the student of twenty years ago. “54 percent of adult learners are age 25-29…34 percent of adult learners are 40 and over” (para. 3).  These full-time students represent a majority that have time constraints such as families, careers, and other limiting factors that impede their ability to attend schools during regular hours.  They want an education that is streamlined, efficient, accommodating to the time pressures and constraints that they must face on a daily basis.

Portland University’s accredited online program addresses the needs of the growing majority of student; a student that is unlike those of the past. According to Portland State University (2017), “The strength of our online degree programs is a big reason why U.S. News and World Report named us one of America’s top 10 most innovative universities” (para. 2).  The success of Portland can be replicated through a strong accreditation process that strongly monitors its inputs.  Professors with strong experience, refined and accredited programs, and flexibility have helped to maintain the rigor of its programs while addressing the individual needs of its students.

“Portland State University is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU)” (Portland State University, 2017, para. 2).  Manning (2014) suggests that accreditation has always served the innovation of the institution.  I chose Portland State because it has become a strong hybrid between the sterile education that traditional universities provide and the loose and immeasurable education the MOOCs offer.  If other schools want to see the successes of Portland U in their own universities, they need only do two things.  1. Follow an accreditation process that strictly enforces the processes, educational methods, and solvency of the university. 2. Plan for a program that specifically caters to the needs of its population.

Portland State            Computer Hall


Fullan, M., Scott, G. (11/2010). Turnaround Leadership for Higher Education, 1st Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118570302/

Manning, S. (2014). Launching new institutions: Solving the chicken-or-egg problem in American higher education. Retrieved from http://www.aei.org/publication/launching-new-institutions-solving-chicken-egg-problem-american-higher-education.

Marx, G. (2006). Future Focused Leadership, 1st Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/MBS1526230/

Newbaker, P. (2012). More than onethird of college students are over 25. Retrieved from http://www.studentclearinghouse.org/about/media_center/press_releases/files/release_2012-04-19.pdf

Portland State University. (2017). Portland State PSU Online | Welcome. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from https://www.pdx.edu/psu-online/




MOOCs et al

MOOC File retrieved on 05-10-2017 technologyenhancedlearning.net/2013/02/mooc.png

The reality is, education is expensive.  Not only is it expensive, but the cost analysis of the education, the opportunity cost expensed, and the marginal utility received from its consumption can be seen as dwindling.

Christensen et al., (2011) suggest:

Our country’s dominant higher education policies have focused on expanding access for more than half a century—allowing more students to afford higher education. Yet changing circumstances mandate that we shift the focus of higher education policy away from how to enable more students to afford higher education to how we can make a quality postsecondary education affordable (para. 3).

And although technological forums are being created to curtail this bleak trend, they are still illustrating a less than advantageous defense against the traditional university. There has to be a way.  The most recent adventures in technology have led to an initiative known as Massive Open Online Course or MOOC.  MOOCs have been established for a great many reasons, but their objective is to create a platform that allows for easy access, null cost or cost considerate programs, that provide for flexibility in time frames while shortening courseloads towards the achievement of certificates within the programs.


How do MOOCs fit into the general higher education landscape? Or are they more suited to the “fringe?”

When massive open online courses first grabbed the spotlight in 2011, many saw in them the promise of a revolutionary force that would disrupt traditional higher education by expanding access and reducing costs” (Selingo, 2014).  MOOCs are an opportunity to educate–with relatively no or little expense–socio-economically deprived populations that need a way to reach the coursework while working around the diverse and taxing schedules.

However, what has been witnessed by a majority of the MOOCs community has been contrary to their cause and the fundamental rationale behind this was the manner in which the MOOCs were structured.  Although it was true that creating a free schedule to complete assignments offered flexibility, the reality was that the flexibility often created opportunities for students to do anything other than their studies.

When it offered an open forum for all to access, those that utilized the programs in a successful manner were students that came from more affluent backgrounds-well-versed in technology or already held a degree and were, according to Selingo (2014),   “far better equipped to navigate such a course, especially one covering difficult material” (para. 4).

MOOCs are a great way to educate given you are well-versed, have experience in the expectations of higher education, and require little assistance and/or motivation to navigate your own learning.  Although MOOCs provide additional learning experiences as relatively low to no costs is great, but the programs should be geared towards specialization coursework and even mini certificate type programs that can be short enough in duration to keep the prize at hand and deadline driven in order to promote successful completion.

What can traditional higher education institutions learn from MOOCs to use them effectively as a learning tool?

The idea behind MOOCs is incredibly powerful.  Educating the masses in a cost efficient, catered to approach.  Students can afford to take the courses with relatively no costs associated aside from the opportunity costs for time spent and they are able to cater their learning format, lessons, educational pursuits in a manner that fits their needs.  “The MOOC provides learning in chunks, at a student’s own pace” (Selingo, 2014, para. 15).

The traditional higher education facility has the opportunity to look at MOOCs, their rise in popularity, and ultimately their platform to come to realizations in order to restructure their purpose and more importantly their message to the learner.  Do we value your attendance?  Can we provide you with the level of education that with providing you with a competitive advantage when moving into the job sector?  Can we keep tuition, fees and other expenses down to make the pursuit of a degree affordable and within reason?  Can we streamline the process to offer you a catered learning experience that is specific to your career pursuits?  How can we better help the learner through the process?  Today, the education world (specifically higher education) must begin to realize that the role of the educator is changing.

Traditional higher education must:

  1. Must customize the learning process to meet the needs of the individual student
  2. Create a format that allows for an experiential process
  3. Target a larger audience
  4. Create more affordable coursework
  5. Create a format that is specific to the time constraints of the learner
  6. Remove excess coursework that drives tuition expense and timeframe to complete degree or certificate programs

Traditional universities to have some advantages.  Despite current efforts to create online simulated learning programs, the truth is, new learners still learn best within the confines of a traditional classroom.  I see a large movement towards creating hybrid programs–where the students are scaffolded through the process of online learning–while still being able to take classes on campus.  Selingo (2014) explains that “when MOOCs replace traditional courses, an extremely high number of students fail….much lower rates than for the on-campus equivalents (para. 6).

How can institutions measure the quality of MOOC design, delivery, and outcomes such that they can be included in a student’s transcript and graduation requirements? 

Measuring an MOOC and its effectiveness and how coursework coincides to degree or certificate outcomes presents quite a challenge.  Morrison (2015) writes, “MOOCs don’t fit into the traditional education mold and given it’s usually unclear what the intended outcomes are for MOOCs, assessment is challenging (Gaebel, 2013)” (para. 1).

Morrison identifies an effective instruction model known as the Merril + which infuses five characteristics of effective instruction infused with five additional principles established by Margaryan and Collins.  Morrison (2015) suggests that learning occurs when these components are present:

  1. Problem Centered Learning: …when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems
  2. Activation: …when learners activate existing knowledge, experience or a skill set as a foundation for creating new knowledge and/or skills.
  3. Demonstration: …when learners observe a demonstration [that includes learning of new knowledge via a primary resource] of the skill [knowledge] to be learned.
  4. Application: …when learners apply their new knowledge or skill through discussion, written work, or creation of an artifact to solve a problem.
  5. Integration: …when new knowledge is integrated and into the learner’s context
  6. Collective knowledge: …when learners contribute to the collective knowledge of a subject or topic
  7. Collaboration: …when learners collaborate with others to expand knowledge of individuals and a community of practice
  8. Differentiation: …when learners are provided with different avenues of learning, according to their need, e.g. scaffolding
  9. Authentic resources: …when quality learning resources are curated from and applicable to real world problems
  10. Feedback: …when learners are given expert feedback on their performance (para. 6)

We can review and adjust MOOC curriculum to emphasize these components, but how and to what degree can we monitor their presence?  The context of learning, Hood and Littlejohn (2016), summate “is situated within and across the institutional contexts of the specific course creator and the platform provider” (para. 5).  This makes the task of assessing the evaluative components, objectives, and course content difficult, but not necessarily unachievable.  It is a daunting task for any university, but I believe it would be necessary for each course to be taken by an evaluator within the university to identify key components, as listed by Merrill, but also content alignment with course completion objectives in order to determine if specific MOOC classes could be considered acceptable for degree or certification requirements.

The reality is, a MOOC degree would be a completely unique and specific degree which could be significant because it would allow the employer to match a very specific need within the company.  With that, the downfall would be that the degree would be so specialized or specific that degree descriptions or even job descriptions (later on) would be so specific and restrictive that it would make the process of evaluating (when graduating or hiring) incredibly difficult.

Without definitive objectives, a strict process and fluid process for measurement, a blueprint to coursework correlation for degree advancement and achievement, the MOOC process may never be a means of degree achievement nor is it about information accumulation .  Norvig (2016) suggests “more important is motivation and determination” (4:46).


Christensen, C. M., Horn, M. B., Caldera, L., & Soares, L. (2011). Disrupting college: How disruptive innovation can deliver quality and affordability to postsecondary education. Washington, DC and Mountain View, CA: Center for American Progress and Innosight Institute.

Hood, N., & Littlejohn, A. (2016). MOOC quality: The need for new measures. Journal of learning for development – Jl4d, 3(3). Retrieved from http://www.jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/165/155

Morrison, D. (2015, December 12). MOOC quality comes down to this: Effective course design. Retrieved from https://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/2015/12/12/mooc-quality-comes-down-to-this-effective-course-design/

Norvig, P. (2012, June). Peter Norvig: The 100,000-student classroom | TED Talk Subtitles and Transcript | TED.com [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/peter_norvig_the_100_000_student_classroom/transcript?language=en

Selingo, J. J. (2014, October 29). Demystifying the MOOC. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/02/education/edlife/demystifying-the-mooc.html


Education and Technology! Where are We Headed?

Family WTechnology has definitely had a profound impact on society.  In the next several weeks, while working on my coursework for my degree, I will be working with my peers on conversations highlighting technology, its uses, and its plan for change within the education system.  I’m looking forward to these conversations as they will provide the opportunity to gain great perspective from a variety of sources.  I would love to hear any and all feedback. All are welcome to participate!  Thank you!


Shifting Directions

I am a husband, a father, a student….the juggling between those is enough…but what is it about the human condition that we always seem to feel like we need to throw more pins into the air?!?

This fall I will be transitioning from my current job and back into education.  Why?  Money doesn’t mean everything.  I heard my dad say it when I was a child, but the words never hit me harder than when I was sitting in my 10′ x 10′ cubical twiddling my thumbs for the phone to ring.  The sense that there had to be more was never more present and I knew (with fervent prayer) that God was calling me to do something more.

Change is never easy…the road is never completely free of debris…and you’re never going to have a definite (with 100% degree of certainty) response from God that what you’re doing is the right thing.  Pray, consult, and then pray again.  God will hear you and as long as you walk in His way you will always be in His will.

Keep the faith!

Over the next couple of months, I will be blogging about my journey as a husband, dad, student and professional.  From cleaning up throw-up to arguments over the right way to discipline, I’d love to hear from you!



            As one grows, we explore the world through eyes born to us from leaders or authoritarian roles from our pasts.Through the use of ideology, propaganda, cultural rhetoric, etc. the learning style, the development of the soul with preset norms, beliefs, and codes of ethics are established, and the structure of the future (in large part) becomes based off of these past encounters. Jack Mezirow, in Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning (1991), believes that “As adult learners, we are caught in our own histories. However good we are at making sense of our experiences, we all have to start with what we have been given and operate within horizons set by ways of seeing and understanding that we have acquired through prior learning” (p. 1). Our Weltanschauung, or world view is initiated from these initial interactions or dictations because we have little in the form of experience to generate our own understandings. We stem many preconceived assumptions off of what our parents, grandparents, teachers and any other source of authoritarian and what they tell us. 
            As we enter new roles, such as one of leadership, we similarly interact within an
underlying influence from those that have lead before us.  We base a great deal of our initial years within these roles off of these past interactions. A problem with this, as we have seen in the past, is that rhetoric and propaganda can be so overwhelmingly compelling that it offers us a truth that entices us to ignore everything else that tells us otherwise.There is an existent problem, because our ability to cluster and lack of ability to filter creates an area that one can drum up general assumptions. Many of the flaws with assumption building and generalizing are flaws consumed with stereotyping. Mezirow (1991) shares that “Ideologies [the final destination of an assumption] can vary from sophisticated theory to blind prejudices or biases such as racism, sexism, and chauvinistic nationalism. Such prejudices produce a “restricted” –that is, limited and stereotyped–linguistic code” (p. 131).
            A field, such as education is supposed to symbolize the pursuit of overall knowledge and promote understanding. Yet, it too has a history riddled with prejudice, cruelty, injustice because of its own assumptions. Through Transformative learning, an individual has the opportunity to reframe misconstrued contexts. As we analyze our own Weltanschauung and apply it to new experiences and truly reflect upon these occurrences, we gain a new perspective that allows us to generate new meanings and completely change past thoughts or meanings of understanding.  The implications associated with the true attainment of transformative learning are first, that without the ability to reflect and reframe, we perpetuate the cycle of dogmatic discourse from years of hand me down rhetoric. We inevitably cease to advance and we cement ourselves in the principles of our pasts. Secondly, when we blatantly group experiences and ignore their unique intricacies, we generalize. This postulation creates ignorance and has an ability to stereotype which breeds prejudice, discrimination and other forms of malice. Additionally, parroting of our previous authoritarian role models restricts our ability to coordinate with our core beliefs and tap into our authentic self; it also inhibits our ability to critically reflect. 
            Mezirow (1991) talks about how “reflection is the central dynamic in intentional
learning, problem-solving, and validity testing through rational discourse” (p. 99). A key
component to reflection is that fact that it is conducted under rational discourse. The ability to look coherently at situations suggests that ultimately, there must be a time distance between the action and the point of reflection. There is much to be said for rational reflection and decision making.If you are acting or reacting in a manner that parrots your previous models, you are not allowing for thoughtful reflection in decision making. As a leader, this can be a strong disservice to the community, the school, students and the teachers that you are working for because it leads to inaccurate assumptions and inauthentic discourse that strains communal relationships. As a leader, your strength is your ability to build and bridge relationships.
Mezirow (1990) states:
        We continually move back and forth between the parts and the whole of that which we
         seek to understand and between the event and our habits of expectation…. Over time,          the resulting understanding can be further transformed as we come to discover its                  metaphoric significance in other experiential, theoretical, literary, or aesthetic                        contexts. (p. 3) 
            It is the necessity of this time (Mezirow states “over time”) that is used to strengthen understandings under all of the given contexts (experiential, theoretical, literary, & aesthetic) that allow us to make stronger more well-informed decisions.With transformative learning a time of reflection necessary to process the frames within your consciousto find understanding, connections, coherence, etc.in order to realign thinking processes, reform past perceptions and or create new waves of thought processes is of the utmost importance.  As we move into authentic leadership roles, it is of paramount importance that we constantly reevaluate the information, beliefs, and principles that we have developed along the way of getting to where we have been. It is not suitable to suggest that a satisfactory previous response accurately represents a current situation. For this reason alone, we must evaluate, analyze, and critically reflect on any given situation.We can use our past experiences as guidance, but must critically reflect how much and to what extent we use these examples. We must allow for the opportunity and be open for the possibility of a view to be shifted, a contextual frame to be restructured, and another truth to come to light. Living “transformatively” means that you are aware that there are many truths and not just your own. 
            Being aware of this and being open to change are strong qualities of an effective leader.  Allowing a paradigm to shift rather than ignoring and holding onto a nostalgic memory allow for true learning, which is how we as leaders should be inspiring others.
Mezirow, J. (1990). How Critical Reflection Triggers Transformative Learning. Fostering
          Critical Reflection in Adulthood: A Guide to Transformative andEmancipatory                           Learning.
Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco, CA:                         Jossey-Bass.